National Institute of Lasers and Optronics

Spectroscopy Division

Material Division

Optronics Division

Agriculture and Biophotonics Division

Laser Development Division

Technical Services Division

Time and Frequency Standards Group

An atomic clock uses electronic transition frequency of atoms in the microwave region as frequency standard for its time keeping element. These are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standard for international time distribution services with an accuracy of 1 second in 3 million years. Compact atomic clocks based upon the quantum mechanical concepts of coherent population trapping (CPT) are on high demand due to their small size, accuracy and low cost.


  • Development of Ramsey interferometer.
  • Development of Cs atomic beam clock based on Ramsey interferometer.
  • Research in atomic coherence effects such as electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT), coherent population trapping (CPT), refractive index enhancement, slow light, fast light etc.

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Recent activities

  • Distributed Feedback Laser Diodes.
  • Vapor cells (Cs and Rb).
  • Beam chamber with Microwave cavities.
  • Acousto Optical Modulator.